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John Reed John Reed i(A23641 works by)
Born: Established: 10 Dec 1901 Evandale, Northern Midlands, Midlands, Tasmania, ; Died: Ceased: 5 Dec 1981
Gender: Male
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1 6 y separately published work icon Letters of John Reed : Defining Australian Cultural Life 1920-1981 John Reed , Nancy Underhill (editor), Barrett Reid (editor), Ringwood : Viking , 2001 Z919444 2001 selected work correspondence autobiography
1 Focus-Pocus John Reed , 1968 single work review
— Appears in: Australian Book Review , February vol. 7 no. 4 1968; (p. 69)

— Review of Focus on Charles Blackman Thomas Shapcott , 1967 single work biography
1 2 y separately published work icon Ern Malley's Journal Max Harris (editor), Barrett Reid (editor), John Reed (editor), 1952 Heidelberg : National Press , 1952-1955 Z923236 1952 periodical (4 issues)

The Autumn 1944 issue of Angry Penguins celebrated the poetry of the deceased Ern Malley, discovered when the poet's sister forwarded a clutch of poems to the editor Max Harris. The poems were later discovered to be a hoax perpetrated by the poets James McAuley and Harold Stewart to expose the aesthetic weaknesses of Australia's modernist movement. Despite the humiliation of the Ern Malley hoax and the subsequent prosecution for publishing indecent material, Harris continued to argue the literary merit of the poetry McAuley and Stewart had intended to be inferior. Most notably, he used the name of the poet for his 1950s extension of the Angry Penguins program, Ern Malley's Journal.

Edited by Harris, John Reed and Barrie Reid, the first number appeared in November 1952, containing poems from Harris, Reid, Joy Hester and others. The journal also supported the short story, initially including contributions from Peter Cowan and Dal Stivens. Most of these writers contributed to later numbers with other contributors including Judith Wright. While not as vigorous as its predecessor, Ern Malley's Journal continued to promote a modernist aesthetic; and like Angry Penguins, Ern Malley's Journal promoted modern art, including reproductions of the work of Charles Blackman, Bob Dickerson and Arthur Boyd.

Ern Malley's Journal survived for only six numbers. The first signs of trouble appeared when the fourth number was published in November 1954, many months overdue. The editorial for that number directed blame outward at what the editors saw as a weak literary culture: 'it is fairly obvious that at the moment there is simply not the volume of creative writing in Australia we had hoped to unearth, nor is there the type of public interest and enthusiasm which best encourages the development of talent.'

The final two numbers appeared during 1955. Without subsidies or a strong subscription base Ern Malley's Journal could not survive. This was Harris's last attempt at a modernist 'little magazine', but he continued to produce magazines, founding and editing, with Geoffrey Dutton, Australian Letters and the Australian Book Review.

1 The Sad Case of Miss Mary Edwards and Miss Tempe Manning - and its Lesson John Reed , 1946 single work prose
— Appears in: Angry Penguins Broadsheet , no. 1 1946; (p. 8)
This piece describes the commissioning and subsequent rejection of portraits of politicians Dame Enid Lyons and Dame (then Senator) Dorothy Tangney.
1 Editorial Max Harris , John Reed , 1946 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , July no. [9] 1946; (p. 1)
1 'Great' Australian Stories John Reed , 1946 single work review
— Appears in: Angry Penguins Broadsheet , June no. 6 1946; (p. 10-11)

— Review of Twenty Great Australian Stories 1946 anthology short story
1 Editorial Max Harris , John Reed , 1945 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , no. [8] 1945; (p. 2-3)
Harris and Reed comment on the broadening of Angry Peguin's scope from its beginnings as an 'eclectic anthology for verse, then including prose, subsequently widening its scope to cover the field of painting, and latterly embracing music, the film, and finally, sociology.'
1 'Man-Shy' : A Criticism -- Mainly Destructive John Reed , 1945 single work criticism
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , no. [8] 1945; (p. 167-168)
1 Signs of an Infantile Disorder on the Cultural Front John Reed , 1944 single work
— Appears in: Communist Review , July no. 35 1944; (p. 284-285)
1 Culture, Counihan and the Communist Party John Reed , 1944 single work correspondence
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , December no. [7] 1944; (p. 107)
1 Communist Reasoning John Reed , 1944 single work criticism
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , December no. [7] 1944; (p. 105-106)
Reed takes issue with an article published in the Communist Review by Vic O'Connor. Reed considers the original article was 'outspoken and hostile' towards Angry Penguins.
1 Publishers' Statement Max Harris , John Reed , 1944 single work criticism
— Appears in: The Darkening Ecliptic 1944; (p. 5-6)
1 Editorial Max Harris , John Reed , 1944 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , December no. [7] 1944; (p. 2-3)
Includes a comment on criticisms about the Ern Malley hoax that were published in the Communist newspapers The Tribune and The Guardian by George Farwell and Noel Counihan. Angry Penguins' editors replied to the criticisms, but the replies were not published.
1 The Cultural Stream Max Harris , John Reed , 1944 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , Autumn no. [6] 1944; (p. iv) The Darkening Ecliptic 1988; (p. 53-56) The Darkening Ecliptic 1993; (p. 57-60)
1 Editorial : On the Subject of Policy Max Harris , John Reed , 1943 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , [September] no. 5 1943; (p. 1)
1 Book Publishing Max Harris , John Reed , 1942 single work column
— Appears in: Angry Penguins , no. 4 1942; (p. 60)
A brief statement on the establishment of Reed & Harris, publishers, in order to make availabe 'to the public the best overseas literature by means of re-publication in Australia, together with the original publication of Australian work'.
1 78 y separately published work icon Angry Penguins Max Harris (editor), John Reed (editor), D. B. Kerr (editor), Adelaide : Adelaide University Arts Association , 1940-1943 Z868079 1940-1943 periodical (9 issues)

Literature courses at Adelaide University during the late 1930s offered a traditional curriculum steeped in the writing of well-known figures of the past. Students wishing to discuss contemporary fiction and poetry were left to their own devices. Frustrated by this institutional indifference to major developments in literature and art and prompted by the demise of the student magazine Phoenix, a small group of students, headed by the precocious young poet Max Harris, established a magazine devoted to modernism. Called Angry Penguins, the magazine was published as 'an act of defiance.'

The first issue of Angry Penguins, edited by Harris and D. B. Kerr, was funded by Harris's mother, according to popular belief. This is not correct, by the account of John Miles, who has specialised in a study of the main players; rather, the idea 'grew from the fact that Harris's mother paid to have copies of the first edition of Angry Penguins, and two subsequent editions, the last edition of Phoenix, and some Jindyworobak publications, all containing her son's poems, expensively rebound together.' The University of Adelaide Arts Association and faculty members such as C.R. Jury and J.I.M. Stewart bore the cost of launching Angry Penguins, and supported two further editions.

The name, Angry Penguins. was the inspiration of the journal's patron, Charles Jury and came from Harris's poem, 'Mithridatum of Despair':

We know no mithridatum of despair

as drunks, the angry penguins of the night

straddling the cobbles of the square

tying a shoelace by fogged lamplight

Jury thought the description of 'angry penguins' suited the young poets on their revolutionary literary quest and a quotation from the poem appeared on the title page of the inaugural issue.The first four issues of Angry Penguins were printed in Adelaide and appeared annually, restricted in part by war-time paper rationing. According to Max Harris, the magazine had a 'Europeanizing policy'. The editors looked to the French symbolists and German impressionists as major influences, printing translations and articles on a variety of French and German writers. In addition to Max Harris, writers whose work appeared in Angry Penguins included Peter Cowan and Geoffrey Dutton. In later issues, the visual arts were represented by reproductions of the works of emerging artists like Sidney Nolan and Arthur Boyd. Self-consciously modernist, the magazine was attracted to anything that presented itself as avant garde, drawing adverse comment from a number of magazines, including the Catholic Advocate and the Communist Tribune.

When the fourth number appeared in 1943, John Reed was the Collaborating Editor for the Arts Section. A striking James Gleeson painting appeared on the front cover, marking a change in format that included a greater number of reproductions. From 1944, Angry Penguins was printed in Melbourne where Harris and Reed had established themselves as publishers. Harris returned to Adelaide soon after, but he continued to edit the magazine from there.Angry Penguins began as a 50-page annual. It reached a maximum size of 182 pages in 1945, but the Autumn 1944 number has become best-known as the site of a sensational literary hoax.

Intending to reveal the aesthetic weaknesses of the modernist movement, the poets James McAuley and Harold Stewart playfully grafted a series of poems from various sources, including the Concise Oxford Dictionary, a collection of Shakespeare's plays, a Dictionary of Quotations, Ripman's Rhyming Dictionary and an American report on the drainage of swamps. Attributed to the fictional author Ern Malley, the poems were sent to Max Harris with a letter from the poet's 'sister'. When Harris heralded Ern Malley as an Australian genius in the Autumn number, he had set himself up for ridicule when it became widely-known that Stewart and McAuley had perpetrated the hoax. This was exacerbated when Harris was prosecuted by the South Australian police for publishing indecent material in the form of some of the Ern Malley poems and a story by Peter Cowan. As a result of the controversy, the modernist movement received a major setback in Australia and the more conservative elements were subsequently strengthened.

The last number of Angry Penguins appeared in 1946, but the debate over modernism and particularly the value of Ern Malley's poems continued. Harris and Reed published the short-lived Ern Malley's Journal in the 1950s, continuing their promotion of contemporary cultural and intellectual movements. And, despite the hoax, the Ern Malley poems have been collected in several editions. But, the continued focus on the Ern Malley poems has often diverted attention from the broader contribution that Angry Penguins has made to the development of Australian literature.

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